Diet for heart attack and other cardiovascular diseaseshas several features. Principally,heart disease dietyou must limit your salt intake. In fact, in heart failure, the water salt metabolism is disturbed, sodium ions are retained in the body, and this, in turn, leads to the accumulation of fluid and the appearance of edema, which, of course, will complicate the work ofan already sick heart.

Diet for heart attack and other cardiovascular diseaseshas several features. First, you must limit your salt intake. In fact, in heart failure, the water salt metabolism is disturbed, sodium ions are retained in the body, and this, in turn, leads to the accumulation of fluid and the appearance of edema, which, of course, will complicate the work ofan already sick heart.

The amount of salt that can be consumed per day is usually decided by the doctor individually for each patient. But, on average, the standard does not exceed 5 to 6 g and, in some cases, especially serious ones, the salt must be totally abandoned.

The liquid should also not be overused. Typically, doctors recommend drinking up to one and a half liters of liquid a day, including soups, jam. But without water in general it is also impossible, because otherwise the excretion of nitrogenous metabolic products will be difficult, respectively, the patient may develop weakness, constipation, which is also undesirable in the case of heart failure, which accompanies many cardiovascular diseases. Such as ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, heart defects, cardiomyopathy and many others. Therefore, it is better for cardiac patients to quench their thirst with a weak tea, perhaps fruit tea. You should not drink coffee or, if you drink, you are weak with milk.

Diet for heart attack and other cardiovascular diseasessuggests that the diet should be as rich in trace elements as potassium and magnesium. After all, if the sodium in the patient's body is delayed, potassium, on the contrary, abandons it intensely. Potassium deficiency can lead to life-threatening arrhythmias. Potassium and magnesium are two very important minerals. Potassium is necessary for the normal functioning of the heart muscle and magnesium - for blood vessels. Therefore, the cardiac patient is advised to eat plums, nuts, beets, potatoes, cabbage, that is, those foods that contain large amounts of potassium. Potassium is also rich in citrus fruits, buckwheat, oats, rice, black and red currants, raspberries, blackberries, cranberries, currants. Magnesium is rich in cereals, bread, nuts, almonds, hazelnuts, sunflower seeds, watermelon, seaweed.

Patients with cardiovascular diseases should remember that their diet should be light, they should not overeat, and the diet must be fractionated, that is, they should eat little, but 5 to 6 times a day. After all, a large amount of food that immediately enters the stomach is a great additional burden not only for the digestive system, but also for the cardiovascular system.

With heart failure, the acid-base balance shifts to the acid side. Milk and fermented dairy products, vegetables, herbs, fruits, berries will help restore it. However, for diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, for example, with flatulence, most vegetables should be used roasted or cooked.

Patients should also limit the sugar in their diet. It can contribute to the appearance of edema, which also complicates the functioning of the heart. It is necessary to abandon fatty foods, especially if the patient is overweight. It is preferable to eat lean meat (boiled chicken, beef, etc. ), as well as lean fish. The side dishes for this meat must be vegetables (boiled potatoes, cabbage, carrots, zucchini, etc. ). Soups should be eaten vegetarian: vegetables, dairy products and even fruits. Overweight and heart failure patients limit bread consumption (no more than two to three slices a day).

The amount of products containing animal fats (animal oil, fatty meat, sour cream), as well as eggs, should be drastically limited. Fish and vegetable oil, especially unrefined oil, are extremely useful.

Currently, the popularity of the so-called Mediterranean diet is growing, which, according to research, will effectively prevent the development of cardiovascular diseases and their complications (see a separate article in our guide).

In any case, the feeding of patients with heart failure must be carried out under the supervision of a cardiologist and nutritionist.

mediterranean diet

The people of the Mediterranean have a very common sense of what we really need to eat. The Mediterranean diet is not a diet in the full sense of the word, but a system that describes the type of food in the region, the tradition of cooking. Mediterranean inhabitants have the lowest mortality rate from cardiovascular disease and, in fact, eat cheese, meat and alcohol. Thus, it can be called a peculiar, non-classical and less severe diet for heart attacks and other cardiovascular diseases.

The Mediterranean diet is not specifically designed for weight loss, nor is it rigid. At the same time, it makes it possible to choose healthy foods that do not contain animal fats, sugars and preserves, so rich in our daily menu. The basis of the Mediterranean diet should be the basis of your daily diet. That means eliminating canned foods, frozen meals and all heavy British foods.

Important facts about the Mediterranean diet were presented in January 1993 at a conference at Harvard University School of Public Health and Oldways Preservation & Exchange Trust, dedicated to the study of the influence of the dietary traditions of the inhabitants of the Mediterranean countries - Crete, Greece, southern regionsfrom Italy and North Africa - at a phenomenal low level of chronic diseases of the cardiovascular system. Italians, in particular, have always intuitively understood that such a combination of products is the most suitable to compensate for the lack of meat, and it was the culinary combinations of these ingredients that brought the rich and colorful Italian cuisine to life. After examining more than 20, 000 Greek citizens, scientists concluded that people who follow the Mediterranean diet reduce the risk of death from cancer by 24% and by 33% from heart disease.

Studies on the effects of the Mediterranean diet on the body have shown that those who eat according to the classic "Mediterranean diet" are three times more likely to survive than those who consume foods with high cholesterol. The study's leader, Dr. Roberto Marchioli, emphasized that people with frequent heart attacks can at least reduce their frequency by eliminating foods containing saturated fats, such as oil, from their diet. In addition, in the course of the study, it was found that taking a dietary supplement of polyunsaturated acid n-3, which is contained in the specific fat of certain types of fish, has an extremely beneficial effect on the work of the heart muscle.

Mediterranean people eat a lot of fresh fish and other fresh produce, but consume much less canned food. Recent studies have shown that vegetable oils, in particular olive and fish oils, are necessary for the body to produce prostaglandins. They are hormones, substances that regulate cellular metabolism, preventing heart attacks, heart attacks and many other diseases. It has been observed that a small amount of alcohol also promotes the production of prostaglandins.

According to the European Heart Network, more than 50% of a person's daily caloric needs must be replenished with complex carbohydrates, for which pasta is the leader among foods, making this wonderful product an integral part of the Mediterranean diet. According to Francisco Perez, professor in the Department of Medicine at the University of Córdoba, the Mediterranean diet is an ideal alternative to many modern diets and should be considered a special diet. Meat (pork, beef or lamb) is eaten every month, but not necessarily every week. Eggs and poultry sweets (chicken, goose, ostrich) are eaten every week, but not necessarily every day. Vegetables, fruits, nuts, legumes (hummus), cereals, olive oil, cheese, yogurt and fish are consumed almost every day.

It is generally believed that the beneficial effects of the diet are determined by olive oil, but a research team led by Antonia Trichopoulou, from the University of Athens, has shown that it is impossible to isolate any component that has a beneficial effect, and it manifests itselfas a result of the product combination. It has been argued that adherence to the Mediterranean diet is generally inversely correlated with mortality. That is, the stronger the characteristics of the Mediterranean diet are expressed in human nutrition, the lower the incidence of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. The Mediterranean diet group had twice the daily intake of alpha-linolenic acid than the control group. In the following two years, fewer cardiovascular events were reported in individuals on the Mediterranean diet (39 versus 76; p<0. 001), cases of sudden coronary death (6 versus 16; p = 0. 015) and non-fatal myocardial infarction (21 versus 43; p<0. 001). In both groups, serum cholesterol levels decreased significantly and the severity of other cardiovascular risk factors decreased. However, favorable changes were more noticeable in the Mediterranean diet group.

It is no wonder that around the world, and especially in Japan, where the problems of improving the health of the population are solved at the highest level, French and Italian restaurants have become very popular and Japan has become one of the leadersworldwide in the purchase of famous French wines.

There is nothing mysterious about the Mediterranean diet. It turns out that in modern industrial society, dairy products, red meats, as well as fast food, instant products have become the main food products. Under the motto "fight for a slim figure", the consumption of pasta, rice and potatoes is noticeably reduced - presumably because the carbohydrates they contain contribute to weight gain. And the inhabitants of the Mediterranean traditionally build their diet exactly the opposite, they use little red meat and eggs, but lean fish, seafood and poultry come first.

The basic principles of seaside cuisine are quite simple. Wheat, barley and hemp foods provide carbohydrates. Dishes with a high carbohydrate content are necessarily seasoned with garlic, onion, aromatic herbs, which, as we have seen, slow down the aging process of the cells. Everything is cooked in olive oil, which stimulates digestion, activates the liver, etc. Fruits and vegetables are used daily. Of dairy products, preference is given to low-fat cheeses and natural yogurts.

It doesn't seem complicated at all, but in fact the difference with the usual "city" food is huge, since all "Mediterranean" foods are rich in vitamin F, also called the youth vitamin. Especially rich in vitamin F in cereal products (pasta, sprouted wheat germ, cereals and whole grain bread), fruits and vegetables, including chestnuts, hemp, sunflowers and nuts. In addition, this diet is very rich in polysaccharides, the lack of which is extremely dangerous to health. It causes diseases of the digestive system, even intestinal cancer.

The Mediterranean diet contains all the polysaccharides that the body needs: cellulose (fruits and vegetables), pectins (apples, currants, pomegranates, carrots), vegetable gluten (cereals, algae, wild rice, hemp grains, some quince fruits, plum, etc. ))).

Don't be afraid of pasta too, if it is made from durum wheat. So, they are not only low in calories, but also rich in "slow" sugars, which provide the human body with the stability of the glucose content in the blood, that is, they maintain a normal level of insulin with a relatively low caloric content. In short, the Mediterranean diet is a classic combination of business with pleasure. Go ahead!

Typical menu for a day

Breakfast:Some fruit, fresh bread and fruit juice or water.

Lunch:Salad with tuna, anchovies and olives, drizzled with olive oil, a few glasses of water.

Dinner:Large peppers stuffed with rice, minced meat, tomatoes and herbs, drizzled with olive oil and cookedSalad and fresh bread. You can drink it with a glass of red wine.

In terms of correcting body weight, this diet does not provide instant weight loss, but it does help to develop healthy eating habits that will eliminate the pounds lost forever.